Four Steps to Right Nozzle Selection for Your Welding

Four Steps to Right Nozzle Selection for Your Welding

Considering These Factors Can Help You Make the Right Nozzle Selection

When it comes to selecting a nozzle for the job, there are many factors to take into account. Largely, it will depend on your welding application, joint access, and process. However, with so many possibilities available, the decision isn’t always clear.

It’s up to you to do your homework, so you can make an informed choice. This is critical considering the welding nozzle you do choose will have a big impact on the final quality. To help you in the process, here are four steps to proper nozzle selection.


Step 1. Choose a One-Piece or Two-Piece Nozzle

If you’re using acetylene, then a one-piece nozzle is a must. It also helps extend life where heating is severe. However, when it comes to other fuel gasses, you can consider a two-piece nozzle for a more efficient operation for normal cutting.

Step 2. Choose the Series

As one of the leading nozzle manufacturers, ESAB offers many different series to choose from when it comes to nozzle selection. These include:

  • OXWELD® 1500 Series Nozzles - CW-23, CW-400, and CW-500
  • Cutting Attachments C-32, C-66, C-77 and C-97
  • Hand Cutting Torches
  • All Machine Cutting Torches PUROX® 4200 Series Nozzles - CW-200, CW-250, and CW-300
  • Cutting Attachments Type “E” and
  • C-84 Hand Cutting Torches

Step 3. Choose the Preheat Capacity

The nozzle you choose will depend on the preheat capacity. For instance, if you’re cutting materials that are steel-coated with rust and scale, or you’re bevel cutting, then you’ll need a heavy preheat capacity.

Step 4. Choose the Size

The thickness of the steel you are cutting will be your guide when it comes to choosing the nozzle size. Also keep factors in mind, such as that oversize nozzles can waste gas. Be sure to use the proper oxygen pressure for whatever size nozzle you do select.

A Look at Different Nozzle Types

For the most part, nozzles are made from brass or copper materials; although chrome-plated nozzles are also available. Brass nozzles offer advantages, like better splatter resistance in lower amperage applications than copper. However, they can actually shatter in higher amperage applications, which is where copper welding nozzles come in. These have better splatter resistance overall and are also easier to manage at higher temperatures.

There is also a range of shapes, designs, and sizes to choose from when it comes to selecting spray nozzles. The best way to choose is to decide which nozzle allows for the proper amount of gas to flow to the weld puddle for your particular application. You’ll want to use as large a nozzle as possible to ensure there’s easy access to the weld joint. This helps to get the most shielding gas flowing and also limits the amount of spatter you’ll experience.

Once you’ve determined the flow rate, there is a range of nozzle options, including:

  • Straight: A straight welding nozzle offers a larger diameter; however, it’s not the best option if you’re looking for excellent joint access.
  • Bottleneck: When you need optimal joint access, consider a bottleneck shape nozzle instead. These are particularly well suited for automated welding systems.
  • Short and long taper: These both offer good access to joints and operate similarly to the bottleneck nozzle. They’re made for tight access in applications, such as corners and pipe welding.
  • Conical: A conical shape welding nozzle offers maximum gas coverage. At the same time, it provides sufficient visibility in manual welding. It also accelerates gas in the weld puddle so turbulence and other conditions don’t impact the weld.

In addition to the different nozzle selections above, there are also threaded and slip-on nozzles. The main difference is the speed and security of the connection. With a threaded nozzle, you’re going to have a more secure connection to the torch, so there aren’t issues, like gas leaks. You’ll also have better alignment with the contact tip.

However, if you’re looking for speed and efficiency, threaded nozzles can take time to remove and replace particularly in instances when splatter bridges into the threads. In these cases, a slip-on nozzle offers faster speeds and is more cost-effective when compared to threaded nozzles.

About ESAB’s OXWELD® and PUROX® Cutting Nozzles

Purox and Oxweld have always been considered the “Cadillac” of oxyfuel welding and cutting apparatus for years. Each is engineered, assembled, and tested in Florence, SC, USA, where we’ve been located for more than 45 years. Some features include:

  • A hard-drawn, electrolytic, tough pitch copper is used in our one-piece nozzles. This withstands heat and wear and also outlasts any copper alloy nozzle.
  • Our one-piece nozzle also has a triple swaged interior, so that the gas passages are mirror-smooth. It also features internal angles that are rounded for non-turbulent, more efficient gas flow. This provides for clean, smooth cuts with minimal kerf.
  • Preheat ports are closely spaced on nozzles around the cutting orifice for a greater concentration of preheat flames.
  • For long, parallel preheat passages, you can redress the nozzle without affecting the performance.
  • Our one-piece nozzles are a single piece of solid copper, which provides for maximum cooling. This is always recommended for acetylene and for other fuel gases when heat exposure is unusually severe.
  • Our two-piece nozzles are recommended for high efficiency with fuel gases other than acetylene. They’re made from solid copper. They feature a heavy-wall external sleeve and brass internal sections can be ordered separately to minimize replacement cost.
  • The conical seats instantly align to provide tight seals. This prevents leaks around the nozzle nut.

Whatever type of nozzle you choose, keep in mind you can prolong its life and fight off splatter using anti-splatter products. Whether it’s a water-based solution or ceramic sprays, these will help you to keep your nozzles for longer so you don’t have to replace them as often.